ISTRAŽIVANJA, Јournal of Historical Researches 2020-10-01T12:56:05+00:00 Часопис Истраживања Open Journal Systems <p>Јournal of Historical Researches</p> STATUS AS PERFORMANCE IN ROMAN SOCIETY 2020-10-01T12:46:11+00:00 NEVILLE MORLEY <p>Roman social historians have tended to focus on the choice between the modern terms ‘status’ and ‘class’ to characterise the nature of the groups that made up Roman society. Both these concepts seek to describe antiquity in modern sociological terms rather than relying on the limited perspective of the original actors; each can be seen as problematic, so that in recent years historians have often assumed instead a simpler division between ‘elite’ and ‘non-elite’, and/or avoided the issue by focusing on the dynamics of social relations rather than the nature of social groups. This paper argues for the continuing usefulness of the Weberian idea of status, as a complement to the Marxian idea of class, but with a greater focus on the idea of performance, drawing on the sociology of Erving Goffman and Judith Butler. This emphasises the complexity of status; the way that its performance changes in different contexts, and depends both on the choices of the actor and the expectations of the audience, with judgements about the success of the performance always provisional and changing over time. It concludes with reflections on the ways in which status, understood as ideological power, could have functioned effectively within Roman society as a source of genuine authority.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BATHING IN THE ROMAN PROVINCE: LOCAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BATHS IN MOESIA SUPERIOR 2020-10-01T12:46:11+00:00 IVANA KUZMANOVIĆ NOVOVIĆ MARKO A. JANKOVIĆ VESNA MANOJLOVIĆ NIKOLIĆ <p>There are approximately 40 Roman baths dating from the 1st to 4th century AD that have been discovered in the territory of Moesia Superior. Most of them were systematically investigated, while some were only indirectly confirmed, either by means of surveys or through epigraphic monuments. The presence and layout of the rooms in these baths points to the conclusion that most activities in the baths of Moesia Superior were similar to those in other parts of the Empire. However, the baths from this territory also show some peculiarities, setting them apart from other parts of the Roman Empire. Although insufficiently investigated and reported on, the portable archaeological finds point to a whole host of activities that were not connected with the bath’s essential function – hygiene and health. Musical instruments, styluses, board game accessories and spindle discs are just some of the objects that illustrate the activities in baths, suggesting that it is not enough to interpret these objects as places for maintaining hygiene, but as centres of social life, or, in the case of private baths, as places for rest and leisure.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NATURAL CONDITIONS AS A FACTOR OF URBANIZATION OF THE LOWER POSAVINA IN THE MIDDLE AGES 2020-10-01T12:46:10+00:00 DEJANA VASIN <p>The paper analyzes the influence of the natural environment on the emergence and development of urban settlements located on the lower reaches of the Sava River in the Middle Ages. Medieval people were much more dependent on natural conditions than they are today and, therefore, relief, climate, hydrography, fertility of land and natural resources were of great importance for the formation and development of towns. These factors were extremely important both for their strategic location and for supplying the towns with basic things, either through direct production or trade. That is why it is important to learn about and explain these factors, which comprise the basic preconditions for the locations of settlements and to analyze the opportunities and aggravating circumstances that the lower course of the Sava River provided for the life of the town.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FROM AGRARIAN HISTORY: ON LENTILS AND FAVA BEANS IN MEDIEVAL SERBIA UNTIL THE END OF THE 15th CENTURY 2020-10-01T12:46:10+00:00 SNEŽANA BOŽANIĆ <p>The paper analyzes the cultivation and representation of lentils and fava beans in medieval Serbia until the end of the 15th century. Their use in the everyday diet of people was influenced by their high protein content. Serbian medieval sources (typikons, charters) indicate that lentil was an obligatory part of monastic meals. The available information on fava beans is scarce, but it can be concluded that they were used in the diet of the poorest social classes. Turkish census records (defterler) created immediately after the Turkish conquest of Serbian lands illustrate the economic circumstances of the time they were compiled and demonstrate the representation of legumes in the production of the time, prompting their analysis in this paper. The paper further briefly analyzes the works of Greek and Roman authors referring to the cultivation and use of legumes in the diet of people, and their usage in religious purposes. Legumes are also shown in the context of traditional Serbian culture.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE TREATIES OF POŽAREVAC AND THEIR IMPACT ON EUROPE 2020-10-01T12:46:09+00:00 HARALD HEPPNER <p>This article focuses on the three treaties which were signed in 1718 in Požarevac between Vienna, Constantinople and Venice. The reason for this is the large and long impact which can be observed until the present day, not only regarding these three powers or the Balkans, but the whole Europe. Although the political, juridical, economic and social consequences of these treaties ended mostly at the end of the First World War, the communication infrastructure, the knowledge culture and the mental effects have kept their actuality since the 18th century until today.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HISTORIOGRAPHICAL WORK OF SIMEON PIŠČEVIĆ: BETWEEN CENTRAL EUROPE AND RUSSIA 2020-10-01T12:56:05+00:00 ĐORĐE ĐURIĆ <p>The paper focuses on the historiographical work of Simeon Piščević (1731–1797) History of Serbian People (Istorija srpskog naroda) written in Russia at the end of the 18th century. Simeon Piščević was a Serb who started serving military in the Austrian army during the War of the Austrian Succession and then went to the Russian army, where he got as far as to the rank of general. Miloš Crnjanski partly based the main character of his novel Migrations (Seobe) on this person. The first part of the paper focuses on the history of his manuscript, which remained unknown until the end of the 19th century, while the second part presents the structure of this work, the sources on which the author relied and the methods that Piščević applied as a historian.</p> 2020-10-01T16:28:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## DIPLOMATIC AND MILITARY AGENTS OF THE POLISH EMIGRATION IN THE ROMANIAN PRINCIPALITIES (1833–1849) 2020-10-01T12:46:03+00:00 ELA COSMA <p>Before the 1848–1849 revolution, the Romanian Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia, under Turkish suzerainty and Russian protectorate, hosted a significant number of Poles belonging to both factions of the Polish Great Emigration, Adam Czartoryski’s circle and the democrats. The names and activity of the Poles emigrated in the Romanian Lands during the Peoples’ Spring are less known than those of the Polish Great Emigration in France and England. The study brings to light the diplomatic involvement (1833–1849) of leading characters among the Polish monarchists sent by Czartoryski and Michał Czajkowski in the Romanian national movement promoted by Ion Câmpineanu (1838), as well as their bounds and military support offered to Nicolae Bălcescu and other revolutionaries from Wallachia (1848). Special attention is paid to the activity unfolded by Polish democrats in Moldavia, in order to prepare and trigger an uprising in neighbouring Galicia (1846, 1848). Led by Faustyn Filanowicz, Teofil Wiśniowski, Ioan Loga, the democrats’ main accomplishment was the establishment of the Polish South Legion (1842), with operational basis in Grozeşti (Oituz) and military deployment in southern Moldavia and north-eastern Wallachia (1848). The study case of the Polish emigration in the Romanian Principalities between 1833–1849 reveals useful conclusions regarding the organization of the universal revolution, a phenomenon of world interest for nineteenth century history.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CONSTITUTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF SERBIA AND ROMANIA IN THE 19th CENTURY: THE INTERNAL NEEDS AND EXTERNAL INFLUENCES – A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS 2020-10-01T12:55:49+00:00 SUZANA RAJIĆ <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of two important factors in the process of the constitutional organization of Serbia and Romania during the 19th century: the external factors and internal socio-political circumstances. Therefore, the constitutional models, modes and types of implementation are an important part of this work. Using analytical and comparative methods, I will discuss the similarities and differences in the processes of constitutionalization in one part of the Balkans region.</p> 2020-10-01T16:28:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ECONOMIC AND ALTRUISTIC MOTIVES IN PHILANTHROPIC WORK OF THE CARNIOLAN SAVING BANK 1844–1908 2020-10-01T12:46:01+00:00 NATAŠA HENIG MIŠČIČ <p>The article discusses the different reasons for very enthusiastic philanthropic work of the Carniolan Savings Bank. During the second half of the 19th century the social issue appeared in a changed form as an urgent question of improving the financial position of an increased number of poorer strata of the society. The management of the Carniolan Savings Bank was aware that the financial resources they collected could help with overcoming hardship and contribute to the general good. The board of the Carniolan Savings Bank donated a part of its net income for charity purposes every year. The paper deals with the period from 1844, the year of the proclamation of the Savings bank regulation, which allowed the use of surpluses for charitable and non-profit purposes. The period under scrutiny ends with the year 1908, when the Carniolan Savings Bank changed its policy of philanthropic activities because of the consequences that it faced after the “run” and boycott of the Slovenian part of the population in the Carniola province.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## NIĆIFOR PERIĆ METROPOLITAN OF RAŠKA-PRIZREN AND SKENDERIJA (1901–1911) 2020-10-01T12:55:37+00:00 ALEKSANDRA NOVAKOV NEDELJKO V. RADOSAVLJEVIĆ <p>The paper presents biographical data on Nićifor Perić, Metropolitan of Raška-Prizren and Skenderija. It analyzes his role of a religious leader, who also had jurisdiction in the marital and partly hereditary law. A special focus is put on his work concerning the establishment of important church institutions and funds. The paper explains his relationship towards education and one part focuses on the issue of the monastery of Visoki Dečani, especially when the foundation of the Committee for debt settlement and stay of Russian monks there is concerned. The paper also explains the nature of the Metropolitan’s misunderstandings both with the Ottoman authorities and the authorities of the Kingdom of Serbia, because he did not yield in his firm attitude concerning the preservation of church privileges, including the authority over schools. Another focus is on the relationship of the Great Church (Ecumenical Patriarchate) with Metropolitan Nićifor and the events that took place during his rule in the Raška-Prizren and Skenderija Metropolitanate.</p> 2020-10-01T16:28:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN GLIGORIJE JEFTANOVIĆ AND THE GREAT ADMINISTRATIVE AND EDUCATIONAL COUNCIL IN 1919 2020-10-01T12:46:08+00:00 BOŠKO M. BRANKOVIĆ <p>The paper follows the correspondence between Gligorije Jeftanović and the Great Administrative and Educational Council in the year 1919. The first part of the text presents the correspondence where the Great Administrative and Educational Council requests an opinion from Jeftanović about the secession of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Constantinople Patriarchate and merging with the Serbian Patriarchate. The second part of the text presents the correspondence that concerned Jeftanović’s membership in the Great Administrative and Educational Council and his pre-war position as the Deputy Chairman of the Great Administrative and Educational Council, from which he was removed by the occupation Austro-Hungarian authorities during the First World War and, as he claimed in the correspondence, with the assistance of people from the Great Administrative and Educational Council.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FOREIGN STUDENTS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BELGRADE AND THEIR INTEREST IN THE HISTORY OF SOUTH SLAVS (1923–1941) 2020-10-01T12:46:08+00:00 PAULINA ČOVIĆ <p>The paper examines the schooling of foreign students, holders of the scholarships awarded by the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes/Yugoslavia, at the University of Belgrade between the two World Wars. The first competitions were opened mid 1920s, with those countries which aided the schooling of Yugoslav students at their respective universities being eligible to apply. During the 1930s student exchange continued, in an apparently more extensive and organized manner, only to be extended at the end of the period under review to include countries with which the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, in accordance with the change of foreign policy orientation, established close political and economic relations. Thus, in the beginning, students from France, Great Britain, Czechoslovakia and Poland came to study in Belgrade, whereas, during the years before World War II, students also came from Turkey, Germany and Italy. Scholarship holders most often worked on developing their knowledge of Serbo-Croatian-Slovenian, studied literature and Yugoslav culture in general. Many of them chose to study history, whether as part of their undergraduate or specialist studies. They are the particular focus of this study. The paper is based on unpublished archival sources, periodicals and relevant historiographic literature.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MARKET LOAN AND SAVINGS BANK OF VRANJE: 1926‒1947 2020-10-01T12:46:07+00:00 DEJAN D. ANTIĆ IVAN M. BECIĆ <p>The banking system of the Kingdom of Serbia, and later of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, was principally characterized by numerous small, local money bureaus. These bureaus were founded with the purpose of providing the necessary capital and profit to their shareholders, as well as offering the ground for the capital placement in times of economic depression. The Market Loan and Savings Bank of Vranje was established in the time of a great financial crisis and is thus an example of the money bureau of the aforementioned nature. Moreover, it is the evidence of how the Great Depression affected the private banking system in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This paper is based on archival materials and relevant reference materials from both national and international sources.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ASSOCIATION OF FIGHTERS OF YUGOSLAVIA (1929–1935): IDEOLOGY - PRACTICE - OUTCOME 2020-10-01T12:46:07+00:00 VASILIJE DRAGOSAVLJEVIĆ <p>The paper aims to present the process of creation, i.e. organizational and ideological shaping of the veteran movement of the Association of Fighters of Yugoslavia (AFY, Serbian BOJ) and illuminate its role in the context of Yugoslav integrationist forces in the first half of the 1930s. A special focus will be placed on the adoption of ideological constructions of the Organization of Yugoslav Nationalists and contemporary French veteran movements. The paper also sheds light on the complex relations between AFY, the 6 January regime and contemporary, ideologically related political groups, and on the role of ideological conceptions of AFY in the creation of the ideology of the Yugoslav National Movement Zbor.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ITALIAN DIPLOMACY ON MILAN STOJADINOVIĆ AFTER HIS FALL FROM POWER 2020-10-01T12:46:06+00:00 BOJAN SIMIĆ <p>Based on primary sources, memoirs, and the relevant literature, this paper examines the attitude of Italian diplomacy towards Milan Stojadinović, a former Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, after his fall from power in February 1939. The abovementioned refers primarily to the Foreign Minister, Count Galeazzo Ciano and Italian envoys in Belgrade Mario Indelli and Francesco Mamelli, but it also includes other diplomats and the Italian press.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ARCHBISHOP STEPINAC, THE INDEPENDENT STATE OF CROATIA AND WESTERN ALLIES 2020-10-01T12:54:55+00:00 MILAN KOLJANIN DRAGICA KOLJANIN <p>There are various doubts and ambiguities regarding the dispatch of the memorandum by the Government of the Independent State of Croatia (ISC) to the Western Allies asking for military intervention in early May 1945, giving rise to different interpretations in historiography. These varying interpretations are related to the circumstances of the dispatch of the memorandum, its text, the actions of prominent representatives of the Ustasha government, relations between the new Yugoslav authorities and Western allies, especially the British and the role of Archbishop Stepinac and the Holy See in the ISC. In order to understand the memorandum, it is necessary to consider the most important political and military circumstances at the end of World War II in Yugoslavia, especially the politics of the new Yugoslavia and the Western powers, primarily the British. The representatives of the Holy See in the ISC and the Archbishop of Zagreb, Alojzije Stepinac, played an important role in efforts to preserve the Ustasha state. This paper was written based on unpublished and published archival sources and relevant historiographical literature.</p> 2020-10-01T16:28:20+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## WESTERN PERCEPTION OF YUGOSLAVIA DURING 1980 2020-10-01T12:46:02+00:00 SLAVOJKA BEŠTIĆ-BRONZA <p>In the late 1970s and early 1980s a new significant wave of cooling in the relations between NATO and the Warsaw Pact dominated various aspects of world politics. In this situation, Yugoslavia was at the centre of an intricate system of relations between the two blocs, especially with projections regarding the future of the country immediately before and after the death of Josip Broz Tito, who as a person then literally symbolized Yugoslavia on the world political scene. With the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the perception of a potential crisis in Yugoslavia absolutely dominated the world media during the first half of 1980. In the months before Tito’s death and during the first year after his funeral, the Western media were very active in trying to predict the fate of the Yugoslav federation and some of the predictions were very pessimistic, especially in the context of expectations of a potential Soviet invasion targeted towards Yugoslavia. In general, the character of Western media analysis of Yugoslav reality underwent a significant evolution in the short term and the viewpoint on the Yugoslav state changed quite rapidly, primarily in the negative context. In this regard, the examples of American, British and West German analytical approaches were particularly illustrative. As it is precisely within these three perceptions that change has been the greatest and most illustrative, it is the intention of this paper to concentrate only on aspects of those three perspectives.</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Victor Neumann, The Banat of Timosoara – a European Melting Pot, London: Scala Arts & Heritage Publishers Ltd, 2019, 496 pages. 2020-10-01T12:46:05+00:00 Slobodan Bjelica <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Slavica Popović Filipović, The Great War Revisited, Valjevo: Istorijski arhiv, 2017, 273 pages. 2020-10-01T12:46:05+00:00 Milena Žikić <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Marco Cuzzi, Dal Risorgimento al Mondo Nuovo. La Massoneria italiana nella Prima guerra mondiale, Milano: Mondadori Education S.p. A, 2017, 406 pages. 2020-10-01T12:46:04+00:00 Konstantin Dragaš <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relja Željski, Politics in the Shadow of Violence, Political Violence in the North Caucasus, Beograd: Službeni glasnik, 2018, 347 pages. 2020-10-01T12:46:03+00:00 Aleksandar M. Gajić <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-25T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##