ISTRAŽIVANJA, Јournal of Historical Researches <p>Јournal of Historical Researches</p> en-US (Дејан Микавица) (Vladimir Mihajlović) Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 SCORCHED EARTH: VIOLENCE AND LANDSCAPE IN NEW KINGDOM EGYPTIAN REPRESENTATIONS OF WAR <p>Death and destruction of peoples and lands are the reality of war. Since the Old Kingdom the destruction of enemy landscape is attested in Egyptian written sources and the number of attestations increases in the following periods, culminating in the New Kingdom. This is also the period when the first visual attestations of enemy landscape destruction appear. In this paper I will explore the actors, targets and acts concerning violence against enemy landscapes together with the use of landscape elements as metaphors for the violent treatments of enemies during the New Kingdom. The study shows that there are differences in representations of treatments of Syro-Palestinian and Nubian landscapes, which could be related to the reality of war itself, as monumental enemy fortresses did not exist in Upper Nubia, at least not on the same scale as in Syria-Palestine. This real difference went hand in hand with the ancient Egyptian construction of the Other as unsettled. Thus, urban landscapes of Syria-Palestine are objects of violence in the visual record where they are reduced to unsettled landscapes through destruction and desolation. It is also shown that this reality of war is additionally framed through Egyptian rules of decorum ascribing most of the destructions of landscape to the king and only some to the soldiers.</p> UROŠ MATIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 DIE SICHERUNG EINES ANTIKEN STADTTORS BEI AENEAS TACTICUS. QUELLE UND MODELLE <p>Aineias (Aeneas Tacticus) legt in seinen Poliorketika dar, wie im Altertum eine kleine Stadt einer Belagerung standhalten kann. Die Schrift ist das älteste militärische Fachbuch, das uns aus der Antike erhalten ist, und bietet die ausführlichste Beschreibung darüber, wie ein Stadttor gesichert wird. Zur Deutung dieser historischen Quelle sind verschiedene, oft hochkomplizierte Modelle vorgeschlagen worden. Der Aufsatz entwickelt eine dem Text eher entsprechende einfache Deutung. Diese vermeidet es, aus anderen Zeugnissen übertragene oder aber nur mit argumenta e silentio begründete Deutungen zum Verständnis des Textes einzusetzen, und macht damit nachvollziehbar, weshalb Aineias weniger auf Technik als vielmehr auf das Vertrauen der Bewohnerschaft zueinander setzt, wenn es um die Sicherung einer von Feinden bedrohten Stadt geht, denn, wie Aineias betont, “zuerst muss man zusehen, ob die Bürger einträchtig sind, da dies bei einer Belagerung das höchste Gut ist.”</p> KAI BRODERSEN ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 THE FUNCTION OF HISTORICAL EXAMPLES IN LYCURGUS’ ORATORY <p>In this paper we will start from the basic hypothesis that Lycurgus’ selection of historical allusions in his oratory represents, above all, a reflection of his patriotic feelings and true moral beliefs. Lycurgus’ speeches are primarily in the service of the endangered polis and his high ethical principles. Thus, a large number of his accusations are based on his moral views of the current social and political situation rather than on any precise or legal argumentation. Therefore, our main intention is to examine to what extent Lycurgus’ digressions to the past history of Athens were a powerful weapon of persuasion in his oratory, especially in his speech <em>Against Leocrates</em>.</p> ANA ELAKOVIĆ-NENADOVIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 ABOUT SEX. VIBIUS GALLUS OF AMASTRIS <p>Sex. Vibius Gallus, trecenarius, primus pilus and praefectus castrorum legionis XIII Geminae, a highly decorated soldier who had served under Domitian and Trajan, chose to settle down in the small Greek polis of Amastris in the province of Pontus et Bithynia. His descendants and wider family are to be found among the elites of this city and at least one other, Abonuteichos, holding high office, sponsoring buildings, granting benefactions. It is generally assumed that Vibius Gallus was an Amastrian by birth and that, after completing his military service, he chose to return and settle in his home city. This paper attempts to disprove this assumption. It discusses his military career, his family, the language of his inscriptions and details of the several monuments set up by himself and his family, in order to show that he was originally from one of the Western provinces and that his choice of Amasra as his home turned him into the ancestor of a new family among the elites of a Greek city.</p> LIGIA RUSCU ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 PAPAL CHAPLAIN AND SUBDEACON EGIDIUS. JUDGE DELEGATE AND LEGATE IN HUNGARY AT THE SAME TIME? <p>The present paper gives a short summary about the course of life of Egidius, a papal chaplain and subdeacon, who spent ca. three years in the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary in the late 1220’s as a judge delegate. The investigation focuses not on the litigations handled by the papal chaplain, but on one particular task of his, the establishment of the bishopric of Syrmia (Srem) and in connection with that on one main question: what kind of authority Egidius received from Pope Gregory IX for the planned measure. While analysing certain historical situations it is of great importance to establish whether a papal envoy was entrusted as a legate with full power or if he had to fulfil his obligation as a nuncio, with limited authorization. In the Hungarian historiography Egidius is handled traditionally as a legate, but his entire mission in Hungary seems to be of a more complex nature, therefore the question itself requires a new analysis.</p> GÁBOR BARABÁS ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 THE BATTLE OF CHRISTIANS AND OTTOMANS IN THE SOUTHWEST OF BAČKA FROM THE BATTLE OF MOHÁCS TO THE PEACE OF ZSITVATOROK <p>After the battle of Mohács in 1526 the medieval kingdom of Hungary was torn into three parts. The middle part from Buda to Belgrade was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. These territories suffered much in the 16th century because of the wars between the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Turks. Therefore, we do not have many historical resources from this period. The territory of South Bačka was a war zone many times from 1526 to 1606, where the Habsburgs, Hungarians and Ottoman Turks fought many battles. The aim of this study is to represent these struggles between Christians and Muslim Turks, focusing on the territories of the early modern Counties of Bač and Bodrog. Moreover, we are going to analyse the consequences of these wars for the population and economy of the mentioned counties.</p> ATTILA PFEIFFER ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 AGRICULTURAL LAND OPTIMUM IN SERBIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY <p>The paper analyzes the concept of minimal and optimal agricultural land in Serbia defined in legislative texts and its interpretation in Serbian historiography. The basic hypothesis we advocate in the paper is that, regardless of the normative frameworks that changed during the 19th century, the problem of land optimum should be analyzed with respect to regional specificities based on geographical and pedological characteristics of the land, as well as the structure of the family.</p> MOMIR SAMARDŽIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 BETWEEN COURTLY, CIVIL AND MILITARY SERVICE: MILITARY MUSICIANS IN THE PRINCIPALITY AND KINGDOM OF SERBIA <p>The Principality and later Kingdom of Serbia with its less pronounced class differences, with a thin layer of urban population and the dominance of rural population, was the perfect target for the military musicians that were coming from the Habsburg Empire. “Foreigners” as military musicians would progress into higher strata. Czech musicians were the most important and most numerous among the newcomers in Serbia and the role of Josif Schlesinger as the first important musician is essential for understanding their importance and influence. The educational and modernization process could be followed by the growth in the number of professional military musicians.</p> MAJA VASILJEVIĆ, HARIS DAJČ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 POLISH EMIGRATION IN FRANCE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY <p>The main aim of the article is an attempt to show the life of Polish emigration in France in the first half of the 20th century and, above all, the circumstances and organization of the trips, the number of people, their distribution within the territory of individual departments, working conditions and the problem of assimilation. In those times, Poles were coming to work in France from the territory of Germany (Westphalia) and from Poland. France was a destination Poles were very keen on and emigrated to on several occasions. On the one hand, France needed workers and, on the other hand, the difficult economic situation prompted Poles to leave their country and look for work outside their borders. The Polish-French convention on emigration and immigration, concluded on 3rd September 1919, played an important role in this matter. It set out the rules that gave grounds for many Poles to leave Poland in the following years. Polish immigration in the 1920s and 30s was of economic nature. Poles chose to work in various branches of heavy industry, primarily in mining, metallurgy, construction, textile and, least profitable, agriculture. They had to get used to the new conditions of life such as learning the language, the culture and mentality of Frenchmen, which was different from Polish. For the first groups of Poles arriving in France, French was a serious problem, yet with each passing year the problem started to fade away. Poles were ambitious and tried to educate their children and young people. Working in France, despite many difficulties, meant an improvement of material conditions for them compared to those in Poland. Compared with the French workers, their position was much worse, their status was significantly lower, they performed physical work, they generally received lower wages, and did not have full occupational rights.</p> ANNA PACHOWICZ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 VIOLENCE AS THE WEAPON OF POLITICAL PARTIES. THE OPERATION OF ORJUNA AND SRNAO IN VOJVODINA (1922 – 1924) <p>This paper deals with the ideology, terror and operations of the ORJUNA (Organization of Yugoslav Nationalists) and the SRNAO (Serbian National Youth) in Vojvodina. These organizations had an important and determining role in the political life of the Kingdom of SHS (Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).<br>The foundation and operation of the ORUJNA and the SRNAO had a great impact on political and everyday life in Vojvodina and determined the lives of minorities (Hungarians, Germans and Jews) living in this new South Slavic state. In spite of the fact that influential movements greatly influenced the internal affairs of the Kingdom of SHS in the first decade of its existence (1918-1929), the literature on the ORJUNA and the SRNAO is incomplete to this day.<br>Therefore, in addition to the relevant literature, this paper introduces and analyses the activity of the ORJUNA and the SRNAO concerning the minorities in Vojvodina by focusing on the period between the two elections from 18 March 1923 to 8 January 1925 using sources such as the liberal Bácsmegyei Napló in Subotica, the Hungarian Party’s Hírlap, the 1922-1925 issue of Torontál in Zrenjanin and the Catholic Délbácska in Novi Sad.<br>The unfamiliarity, lack of analysis and importance of this topic require further research in the relevant archives.</p> ZOLTÁN DÉVAVÁRI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 OLD-NEW ENEMIES IN HUNGARIAN AND YUGOSLAV CARICATURES AFTER THE SECOND WORLD WAR (1945–1947) <p>In this paper I analyse caricatures of Hungarian and Yugoslav comic papers (Jež, Ludas Matyi, Új Szó, and Pesti Izé) between 1945 and 1947. I chose this source since the analysis of caricatures can demonstrate the functioning of communist propaganda. After the presentation of sources and goals of the paper, I analyse the depiction of war criminals, the perception of democracy and the Western states, and the representation of democrats and German enemies within the country in Hungary. Then I analyse the depiction of the self of the communists and finally, before the conclusions, the Peace Treaty of Paris in caricatures. The analysed propaganda caricatures documented well the views and propaganda methods of the Communist Parties regarding the above-mentioned topics.</p> ÁGNES TAMÁS ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 ATTITUDES TOWARDS LUSATIA AND ITS HERITAGE IN POLISH. HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES <p>The paper discusses contemporary attitudes towards Lusatian heritage in Poland, with special attention to the region called Eastern Lusatia situated in the western part of the country. This approach aims to present the phenomenon within an interdisciplinary context of history and social sciences. The broad historical context included in this paper covers mostly the period of post-war border changes, especially those between Poland and Germany. The communist period in Poland and the specificity of communist minority policies is one of the key factors shaping today’s image of Sorbian heritage. Another important perspective is the contemporary trend for creating new localities as a form of the affective bond with the place of inhabitance. This, in the authors’ view, is deeply rooted in post-war social phenomena such as mass-scale migrations. The authors claim that today’s presence and presentation of Lusatian heritage is mostly instrumental and serves local communities as tourist attractions rather than including the Sorbian minority in the discourse of identity.</p> MAŁGORZATA ŁUKIANOW, MARCIN MACIEJEWSKI ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Peter Šoltés, László Vörös and outhers, Korruption, Bratislava: Historický ústav SAV - VEDA, 2015, 561 pages. Đura Hardi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Svetozar Boškov, Antiquity in history teaching: studies and research, Novi Sad: Filozofski fakultet, 2016, pp. 236. Paulina Čović ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Kosta Nikolić, A lost history – Serbia in the 20th century, Službeni glasnik, Beograd, 2016, pp. 418. Goran Vasin ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 27 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0000