ISTRAŽIVANJA, Јournal of Historical Researches 2021-07-12T18:03:30+00:00 Часопис Истраживања Open Journal Systems <p>Јournal of Historical Researches</p> THE RITUAL ROLE OF HONEY IN ANCIENT EGYPT, HATTI AND GREECE 2021-07-12T18:03:30+00:00 ANGUS BOWIE <p>This is a comparison between the uses of honey in ritual contexts in the cultures of ancient Egypt, Hatti and Greece. Strong differences are illustrated. In Egypt, more particularly Lower Egypt, honey plays an important role in royal rituals linking the power, health and fertility of gods and pharaohs. By contrast among the Hittites honey, though involved in important rituals, especially those intended to ‘sweeten’ gods and make them appear amongst the gods or men, is only one ingredient among many. In Greece there appears to be a difference between Mycenaean times, when as far as the sparse evidence allows us to see honey was not restricted to particular types of god, and the Archaic and Classical periods, when it was very substantially confined to rites of an abnormal kind, rites evoking past ages and rites concerning the Underworld and the dead. The article ends with reflections on the limitations of such a comparison as this, and speculation on the reasons for the differences noted. Though the evidence must perforce be laid out very selectively, a range of original sources is quoted.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ON THE MIRROR OF TYRANTS: XENOPHON’S HIERO AND ITS CONTEXT(S) 2021-07-12T18:03:29+00:00 IVAN JORDOVIĆ <p>This article argues that in the <em>Hiero</em>, Xenophon skilfully combines elements of wisdom literature, epinician poetry, the Mirror of Tyrants and <em>logoi Sōkratikoi</em>. In doing so, he pursues two objectives. One is to link his reflections on leadership to respected and influential traditions in order to give his views additional weight and render them interesting for a wider audience. The second objective is to respond to Plato’s challenge to the traditional way of doing politics and, more specifically, the view that it is irremediable. For these reasons, this paper attempts to reconstruct the influence of wisdom literature (<em>hypothēkai</em>, Seven Sages), the Mirror of Tyrants (Isocrates), epinician poetry (Simonides, Pindar) and Plato’s dialogues on the <em>Hiero</em>.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## ANCIENT GREEKS AND SUICIDE IN THE TRAGEDIES: SOPHOCLES᾿ AJAX AND EURIPIDES᾿ HERACLES 2021-07-12T18:03:29+00:00 GORDAN MARIČIĆ ŽELJKA ŠAJIN <p>This paper analyzes attitudes towards suicide in ancient Greece as presented in Greek tragedies. Although suicide as a social phenomenon was a common motif in various ancient plays, the focus here will be on two tragedies, Sophocles᾿ <em>Ajax</em> and Euripides᾿ <em>Heracles</em>, in which suicidal tendencies motivated by a loss of honor are most clearly depicted. In these plays, the two heroes are faced with a dilemma: choosing between an honorable death or a life spent in shame. In accordance with the ideals of his creator and the strict heroic code, Sophocles’ <em>Ajax</em> decides to commit suicide. Euripides’ <em>Heracles</em>, however, broken and devastated, chooses life by relying only on himself and his friendship with Theseus.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## REGES, REGULI, DUCES: SOME REMARKS ON THE INDIVIDUAL AND POWER IN LATE IRON AGE PRE-ROMAN BRITAIN 2021-07-12T18:03:29+00:00 ANTON BARYSHNIKOV <p>The paper considers one of the most significant changes in late pre-Roman Iron Age in Britain—the emergence of individual power, usually labeled as kingship. The modern perception of this sociopolitical phenomenon has been largely determined according to texts from Greek and Roman authors. This paper argues that this image is distorted and says more about the ancient writers than it does about ancient political leaders, their status, or the essence of their power. Avoiding terms like king to prevent a general misunderstanding of the phenomenon is reasonable; nevertheless, coins from so-called dynasties and tribes as well as other material sources show the emergence of individual power from the first century B.C.E. to the first century C.E. This new phenomenon should be analyzed with new (and re-worked) theoretical frameworks. Additionally, comparative studies can play a significant role in exploring the nature of what is referred to as Iron Age kingship in Britain.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE BAKIĆES AS AN EXAMPLE OF THE SOCIAL RISE OF VLACH FAMILIES IN THE EARLY OTTOMAN PERIOD 2021-07-12T18:03:28+00:00 NENAD LEMAJIĆ <p>During the period of Ottoman penetration and stabilization in the Balkans, one community within what was then Serbian society gained importance. They were pastoralists who were referred to in documents of the time as Vlachs. Vlach communities that specialized in extensive pastoralism are recorded in the oldest documents related to medieval Serbia from the end of the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth centuries. Over time, these groups took on a Serbian ethnicity. The collapse of classical feudalism and the specific Ottoman system, especially in the hinterlands and sparsely populated areas, gave the Vlach communities opportunities for meaningful social progress. The paper analyzes the rise of the Vlach Bakić family, who rose to power during the second half of the fifteenth and the first half of the sixteenth centuries, first within the Ottoman Empire and then later within Habsburg Hungary.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BISHOP NIKODIM BUSOVIĆ AND UNIATISM IN LATE 17TH AND EARLY 18TH CENTURY DALMATIA AND BOKA 2021-07-12T18:03:28+00:00 MARINA MATIĆ <p>This article deals with the role and activities of Bishop of Dalmatia Nikodim Busović at the end of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the eighteenth century. For Dalmatia and Boka, these were tumultuous times caused by the Morean War (1683–1699), with increased population migrations and increased Uniate pressures on the local Serbian population. During this turmoil, the Uniate archbishop of Philadelphia, Meletius Tipaldi, attempted to expand his influence and bring the Serbian Orthodox population in Dalmatia under his jurisdiction. At the same time, Catholic bishops in Dalmatia and Boka, protégés of the <em>Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith</em>, were pressuring Serbs to embrace Uniatism. Under these circumstances, Bishop Nikodim Busović managed for more than a decade to skillfully maintain the Serbian ecclesiastical organization under Venetian rule. After his suspension, Serbs in the coastal area of Dalmatia and Boka did not have a bishop until late eighteenth century.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND SERBIAN EDUCATION IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA IN THE LAST CENTURY OF OTTOMAN RULE 2021-07-12T18:03:27+00:00 BORIVOJE MILOŠEVIĆ SANDRA LUKIĆ <p>The origins of initial education of the Serbian people in Bosnia and Herzegovina are found in the Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries. Monks and priests, although having a modest education, also worked as teachers besides their regular religious functions. The first students were young men, who were trained in the profession of priests. They usually inherited this position from their fathers. The initial courses were of a limited religious character and were not able to provide a broader education to students. Literacy obtained within the sphere of the church could not respond to the needs and spirit of the new age in the middle of the 19<sup>th</sup> century. Therefore, it was prominent and wealthy Serbian merchants that made a strong impact in establishing modern private schools. Most Serbian schools were financially supported by Serbia and Russia during that century, up until the Austro-Hungarian occupation. Serbian Orthodox church – school municipalities very often addressed Belgrade for help for reconstruction or building schools and churches. The foundation of Pelagic’s Seminary in Banja Luka in 1866 made a significant impact on the cultural progress of Serbs, especially those living in the area of Bosanska Krajina.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## MOCKING NATION BUILDING AND IDENTITY. AN ANALYSIS OF CARICATURES IN HUNGARIAN, ROMANIAN, SERBIAN, AND SLOVAK SATIRICAL PERIODICALS IN THE MID TO LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY 2021-07-12T18:03:27+00:00 ÁGNES TAMÁS <p>This paper aims to present a comparative analysis of caricatures published in Hungarian (<em>Üstökös</em>, <em>Borsszem</em> <em>Jankó</em>), Serbian (<em>Bič</em>, <em>Vrač</em> <em>pogađač</em>), Romanian (<em>Gur’a Satului</em>), and Slovak (<em>Černokňažník</em>) satirical press in Hungary in the second half of the nineteenth century. The depth of the connection between identity, nation building, and humour will be demonstrated. Theories of nationalism often emphasise the primacy of the role of the press and of print media in nation building processes. To investigate this, humorous printed sources have been selected. The comparison utilises and complements Anthony D. Smith’s definition of the ethnic core and reflects on Christie Davies’ theory of ethnic humour. Tethered by these concepts, the analysis of the caricatures investigates the following aspects: names for the Self and the Other, elements of culture and tradition (languages, habits, religions, supposed characteristics, clothing and bodily features), symbols of the Self and the Other, historical memories and myths of the common ancestry of the Self and the Other, and the definitions of “our” vs. “their” territory and homeland. This analysis reveals that the stereotypes observed in satirical magazines and the images of the Other and of the Self depicted through the use of humorous or ironic techniques can be effectively distinguished and connected to the nation building process and to the process of shaping “enemies”.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## SERBIA, ITALY’S ENTRANCE INTO WORLD WAR I, AND THE LONDON AGREEMENT: A NEW INTERPRETATION 2021-07-12T18:03:27+00:00 MIROSLAV RADIVOJEVIĆ <p>This paper follows the Entente Powers negotiations with Italy from the beginning of World War I up to the signing of the London Agreement. Simultaneously, this paper follows Serbian relations towards the negotiations and Italy entering the conflict from the standpoint of its national pretensions. Due to the important role of Russia, as Serbia’s closest ally and the traditional protector of Slavic interests, special attention has been dedicated to its position and reasons for relenting in diplomatic initiative for Italy entering the war. This paper contains an analysis and a new interpretation of the London Agreement. In addition to this, the paper sheds light on the beginning of deteriorating relations between the governments in Rome and Belgrade/Niš, which used to be friendly before the Great War, as well as the circumstances which influenced the situation.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## TWO COLLECTIONS AND TWO GREEK OBSESSIONS 2021-07-12T18:03:26+00:00 ALEKSANDAR PALAVESTRA <p>It has become a truism that museum exhibitions and interpretations are influenced by wider theoretical concepts and the author’s personal ideas. Winckelmann’s legacy is present in most of the European museums. Sometimes the concepts emphasizing Greece are perpetuated over decades, in spite of the fact that new archaeological interpretations contradict this neo-Classicist reading. Two examples will be offered to illustrate this situation. The first is the case of the Neolithic site of Vinča near Belgrade, excavated during several campaigns from 1908 to 1934 by Miloje Vasić. At the time he started researching the site, Vasić was the director of the National Museum in Belgrade and a professor of archaeology at the university. He argued that Vinča was a settlement of the Aegean colonists and an emanation of the Minoan and Mycenaean Bronze Age spirit. From 1934 on, he even identified Vinča as an Ionian colony from the sixth century B.C.E. After the First World War, Vasić ceased being the director of the museum and focused on the work at the university. At the same time, his Vinča interpretation was met with sharp criticism both in the Serbian and international archaeological communities and the site was firmly dated as Neolithic. Faced with criticism, even from the National Museum Belgrade, in 1929 Vasić established the University Archaeological Collection, where he placed material from the post-war excavations at Vinča and continued exhibiting his philhellenic interpretation. The second case to be presented is what is referred to as the princely grave from Novi Pazar, one of the most Iron Age important finds in the Central Balkans. From the middle of the twentieth century almost to the present day, a thesis concerning the Greek-Illyrian treasures has been perpetuated, although the new interpretations have clearly shown that both parts of this title are problematic.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A POSTCOLONIAL PERSPECTIVE OF A VOYAGE TO EGYPT IN THE TRAVELOGUE UNDER THE AFRICAN SUN BY MILORAD RAJČEVIĆ 2021-07-12T18:03:26+00:00 UROŠ MATIĆ <p>Milorad Rajčević (1890–1964), a famous Serbian traveller, adventurer, and travelogue writer, also went to Egypt in 1921 as part of his world travels. Impressions and experiences from his travels were published consecutively in Belgrade magazine <em>Little Journal</em> and in the form of monographs <em>Under the African Sun</em> (1924 and 1925) and <em>In the Far East</em> (1930). These writings provide us with an important insight into the Serbian bourgeois class image of both ancient Egypt and Egypt in the time Rajčević made his journey. His impressions and experiences from Egypt were transmitted through his travelogue <em>Under the African Sun</em> and were shaped by colonial discourse of a European traveller. It provides us with an insight into the attitudes towards ancient and modern Egypt before academic interest in studying ancient Egyptian past in Serbia. The travelogue contains numerous Orientalist ideas about Arabic population of Egypt. From the point of view of history of archaeology, particularly important are his comments on progress and modernisation. In that context, his comparisons of European with Ancient Egyptian cultural and technical achievements play a significant role. This paper analyses the content of the travelogue <em>Under the African Sun</em> from a postcolonial perspective and argues that although certain ideas inherent to colonial episteme of his time can be recognized, it is not possible to pinpoint the exact sources Rajčević used.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## BANOVINAS – ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS OF KING ALEXANDER I KARAĐORĐEVIĆ AND HIS PERSONAL REGIME 2021-07-12T18:03:25+00:00 PREDRAG M. VAJAGIĆ <p>One of the main consequences of the King Alexander I Karađorđević’s personal regime was an administrative rearrangement of the state that formed new administrative units called banovinas. Historiography to date has not shed much light on the circumstances under which the banovinas were formed. Studies show that this issue occupied much of the attention of the king and his court, and that the best experts were engaged. At the beginning of the dictatorship, banovinas and their bans were used as a means through which the proclaimed ideology of Yugoslavism would come into being in the form of a single Yugoslav nation. The starting point was to remove national and historical borders between Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, which were regarded as the culprits behind divisions within the population. Presenting federalization as derived through banovinas as administrative units served to conceal their true function in the process of building a unified state. Following the death of King Alexander I Karađorđević, there was an abundance of support for the idea of banovinas as administrative units and as part of the foundation of the Yugoslav state. After only ten years, the borders of the banovinas, as defined by the September constitution, were changed due to the creation of the Banovina of Croatia. This act annulled all the principles of the 1929 administrative rearrangement. The further fate of the banovinas was determined by the Second World War, in which the Kingdom of Yugoslavia as a state disappeared. Based on an analysis of available archival material, periodicals, memoirs of contemporaries and historiographical publications, the intention of this study is to show how the banovinas, as new administrative units, were used to serve the king’s personal dictatorship. Opinions of the Banovinas as parts of the administrative system are mostly negative. However, in a broader context, they brought progress and prosperity to certain areas of the state.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## STEPPING OUT OF THE “ENCLAVE”: PUBLIC ACTIVITIES OF THE SERBIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH AND THE QUEST TO REGAIN SOCIAL AUTHORITY IN THE 1980S 2021-07-12T18:03:25+00:00 IVANA VESIĆ VESNA PENO <p>In this paper we will consider how, from the beginning to the end of the 1980s, the Serbian Orthodox Church gradually abandoned its restricted mode of public action and moved from an enclave form, with occasional elements of counterpublics, to a dominant public sphere. This process was the result of a complex set of phenomena that often overlapped. Pressure from authorities on religious communities and believers started to decline at the time despite restrictive legislation regarding public appearances by religious officials still being in force. This was followed by a pronounced deatheization of younger parts of the population and an expansion of various forms of secular religiosity (popular culture, sports), including hybrid types of postmodern spirituality within Yugoslav society. In such circumstances, religious communities were encouraged to expand the scope of their public activities, so they found new forms of communication and networking, both among believers and in various social circles. Our aim is to point to forms of public action cultivated at the time by the Church and the stages it underwent in its participation in the public sphere. Additionally, the factors that influenced a change in the Church’s public and social position in the late 1980s will be discussed, along with the consequences caused in different areas of its functioning.</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Antal Molnár, Confessionalization on the Frontier: The Balkan Catholics between Roman Reform and Ottoman Reality, Rome: Viella, 2019, 268 pp. 2021-07-12T18:03:25+00:00 Attila Pfeiffer <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Karl-Peter Krauss, Mord an der Donau. Leopold von Márffy und die deutschen Untertanen in Tscheb (1802–1812). Eine Mikrogeschichte der Gewalt. Südosteuropäische Arbeiten 160. Berlin: De Gruyter Oldenbourg, 2018. 306 pp. 2021-07-12T18:03:24+00:00 Zoltán Gőzsy <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Federico Imparato, La „chiave dell' Adriatico“. Antonio Salandra, Gaetano Salvemini, la Puglia e la politica balcanica dell' Italia liberale durante la Grande Guerra (1914–1918), Rubbettino Editore, 2019, 422 pp. 2021-07-12T18:03:24+00:00 Konstantin Dragaš <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Goran Latinović, Yugoslav-Italian Economic Relations (1918–1941), Faculty of Philosophy, Banja Luka, 2019, 291 pp. 2021-07-12T18:03:23+00:00 Slobodan Bjelica <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##