ISTRAŽIVANJA, Јournal of Historical Researches <p>Јournal of Historical Researches</p> en-US (Часопис Истраживања) (Vladimir Mihajlović) Fri, 19 Jan 2024 14:00:19 +0000 OJS 60 THE ROADS IN THE LIM RIVER VALLEY IN THE LATE ANTIQUITY AND THE MIDDLE AGES: CONTINUITY AND CHANGE <p>The paper deals with the study of roads in the region of Lim river valley ranging from late antiquity to the beginning of the Ottoman period. In late antiquity, the Lim valley did not have a primary hub for the transportation of people and goods. This changed in the Middle Ages when the Lim valley became a transit point through which roads and merchants from Primorje (Dubrovnik and Kotor) passed through to the centers of the Serbian medieval state (Ras and Novo Brdo). In this paper the continuity and discontinuity of this movement through the Lim river valley will be discussed.</p> SINIŠA MIŠIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 NATURAL CONDITIONS AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CITIES ON OPPOSITE SIDES OF THE DANUBE RIVER: A CASE STUDY OF KOVIN AND SMEDEREVO FROM THE 14th TO THE 18th CENTURY <p>This paper analyzes the impact of the natural environment as a condition for the emergence and development of Kovin and Smederevo, two nearby cities on opposite banks of the Danube, during a period ranging from the Middle Ages, when both cities underwent intensive development, until the eighteenth century, when the process of land reclamation began on their locations. In the past, the terrain, climate, hydrography, fertility, and natural resources were highly significant for the formation and development of cities, both for their strategic positions and for supplying cities with basic needs, either through direct production or trade. Thus, it is important to analyze and explain these factors that make up the basic prerequisites for the location of a settlement, and to look at the possibilities and obstacles for a city or town along the lower course of the Danube, especially because the conditions differed on the left and right banks in this particular area.</p> DEJANA VASIĆ, SNEŠANA BOŽANIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 GRDAN’S UPRISING IN THE PLANS AND ARCHIVES OF THE APOSTOLIC SEE <p>This study of the uprising of the voivode Grdan (1596–1597) was conducted within a wider context of the Apostolic See and Pope Clement VIII’s plans for missionary work by Franciscan Observants and Jesuits in the regions ruled by the Ottomans that was intended to strength Catholic congregations. In the years preceding the Long War (1593–1606), a belief emerged that the Ottoman Empire had weakened enough to easily collapse in the face of an attack by united Christian states backed by major uprisings among the Christians under their rule. The Apostolic See believed this would pave the way for mass conversion of Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Such beliefs were promoted by various adventurists and self-proclaimed servants of several royal courts. This paper is primarily based on the correspondence of Clement VIII and Cardinal Cinzio Aldobrandini with Patriarch Jovan II Kantul and Archbishop Toma Ursini, as well as on statements by Lazzaro Soranzo in his work L’Ottomanno. The paper will also pinpoint more precisely voivode Grdan’s uprising in comparison to what historiography has told us. Also, the names of some leaders of the people that supported him will be identified.</p> KATARINA MITROVIĆ, MARIJA KOPRIVICA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BETWEEN THE BALKANS AND HUNGARY: BAČ AS THE SECOND SEAT OF THE ARCHDIOCESE OF KALOCSA-BAČ UNDER OTTOMAN RULE DURING THE 16th AND 17th CENTURIES <p>After the campaign of Suleiman the Magnificent in 1526, the medieval Kingdom of Hungary effectively ceased to exist. Ferdinand of Habsburg and John Szapolyai fought for supremacy in Hungary and a series of Habsburg-Ottoman wars began, which would last, with minor and major interruptions, for almost 150 years. In this article, I will introduce to Serbian historiography how the fortress of Bač (which was owned by the archbishops of Kalocsa) and the town of Bač, as the second centre of the archdiocese, came under the rule of the Ottomans. The second aim is to present how the archbishops of Kalocsa dealt with the Catholics in Bač and its surroundings during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Last, we will present and summarize our research into how the archbishops of Kalocsa taxed the former archbishop’s estates in Bačka. I will also touch on the beginnings of missionary work in Bač, which was organized in Rome by the Congregation for Propagation of the Faith.</p> ATTILA PFEIFFER ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 «ГРАММАТИКА ИЛЛИРСКОГО ЯЗЫКА» (1833) И. БЕРЛИЧА КАК КУЛЬТУРНЫЙ ФЕНОМЕН ЭПОХИ «НАЦИОНАЛЬНОГО ВОЗРОЖДЕНИЯ» У ЮЖНЫХ СЛАВЯН АВСТРИЙСКОЙ ИМПЕРИИ <p>В статье рассмотрена «Грамматика иллирского языка» (1833) торговца, писателя и лингвиста Игнаца Алоиза Берлича (1795–1855) с исторической и культурологической точек зрения. Берлич занял особую нишу в движении иллиризма, являясь представителем интеллектуальной мысли Славонии и Военной границы. При этом он частично отказался от родной ему славонской лингвокультурной традиции в пользу более широкой «иллирской». Автор статьи пришел к выводу, что Берлич не собирался знакомить читателя книги с историей и культурой южных славян, однако предполагал, что по его грамматике будут обучаться «иллирскому» языку не только «немцы», но и его «земляки», для которых этот язык родной. Кроме того, в статье показано, что на первое издание «Грамматики» повлияло общение Берлича с Вуком Караджичем и Йернеем Копитаром, тогда как на второе – с Богуславом Шулеком, который, как установил автор статьи, с большой долей вероятности обучался хорватскому языку именно по пособию Берлича. Обращая внимание на то, что Берлич в предисловии к грамматике и ее переизданиям пытался решить проблему двух типов письменности «у одного народа», связывая их с конфессиональной принадлежностью, автор статьи предлагает ввести в научный оборот термин «письменно-графическая идентичность».</p> АЛЕКСАНДР МИХАЙЛОВИЧ ДРОНОВ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MILITARY TRAINING OF LINE INFANTRY AND BORDER GUARD REGIMENT OFFICERS IN THE MID-19th CENTURY: A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY FROM TRANSYLVANIA <p>This paper argues that in the early 19th century, border guard regiments were generally staffed with less qualified officers than the line regiments were, potentially because service in the former was considered to be less prestigious for a Habsburg officer during this period. This is demonstrated through a comparative case study of officers serving in 1840 in the 51st line infantry regiment and the 17th border guard regiment (or 2nd Romanian border guard regiment). The case study focuses on three quantifiable indicators: education, language abilities, and knowledge of engineering. The data were gathered from the officers’ Conduite-Listen (personal records), which was an evaluation form that recorded a plethora of information about all the regiment’s Oberoffiziere (subaltern officers).</p> DRAGOȘ DUMITRU IANC ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE SERBIAN VOJVODINA: IDEA AND BORDERS UNTIL 1918 <p>The concept of a Serbian Vojvodina as a political and territorial unit, was present among the Serbs in the Habsburg Monarchy from the end of the seventeenth century until the First World War. During the period it existed (1848–1861) or when demands for it again emerged (before 1848 and after 1861) the question of its borders arose. This became especially apparent when the people in Vojvodina voluntarily joined the Kingdom of Serbia, which subsequently became a newly formed state for Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in December 1918. When a common state was created, the issue of Vojvodina's borders centered on its northern borders, which were defended at the Paris Peace Conference according to historical and ethnic principles.</p> VLADAN GAVRILOVIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ORPHANS NO MORE!: THE YOUNG TURKS’ HOMOGENIZING POLICIES, THE ALBANIAN REACTION, AND THE BALKAN COMMITTEE IN LONDON, 1910–1912 <p>This paper explores the reaction of Albanian nationalists towards the homogenizing and centralizing policy of the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire. After the Young Turks came to power, the focus for the Albanian nationalists was on raising awareness of and securing international support for their national rights. In addition, their focus was on the difficult humanitarian situation in the vilayet of Shkodra. Albanian nationalists’ efforts converged with the Balkan Committee, which was established in London in 1903 following the events in the Balkans after the Ilinden Uprising of 1903. This study investigates the reasons why the Balkan Committee in London became interested in the 1911 Albanian uprising in the vilayet of Shkodra. By following an analytical approach and using numerous sources, the paper concludes that the Balkan Committee succeeded in making British public opinion receptive to the Albanians’ difficult humanitarian situation. However, it did not succeed in uniting the political actors in the Balkans and thus failed to organize a general Balkan uprising, which was clearly an undertaking beyond its capabilities and outside the British government’s interests.</p> LEDIA DUSHKU ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SCHOOL GARDENS IN SLOVENIA AS A TEACHING TOOL, WITH AN EMPHASIS ON THE CENTRAL SCHOOL GARDEN IN LJUBLJANA IN THE INTERWAR PERIOD <p>This paper focuses on Slovenian territory. It explores the development of the idea of a school garden as a teaching tool and its practical implementation within work school principles and looks at differences between urban and rural areas. The article covers the period from the nineteenth century to the mid-1930s, with a particular focus on the interwar period. The central school garden in Ljubljana is presented as an example of a central city school garden. This particular school garden was abolished in 1934, but school gardens remained a part of the curriculum until 1941. The article draws on information from the literature and archival sources from the Historical Archives Ljubljana.</p> DUNJA DOBAJA ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMING ON RADIO BELGRADE DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR <p>Drawing from archival documents, periodicals, and relevant literature, this paper analyzes the role and significance of educational programming broadcast by the Radio Belgrade within the broader propaganda efforts of Milan Nedić’s government. The paper begins with a theoretical explanation of how media functions in education. This will be followed by the use of radio as an instructional tool in Serbian schools during the first half of the twentieth century. The analysis includes talks given during what was called Prosvetni čas (Educational Hour), a radio program broadcast in early 1944. Research has shown that, in a time of strong ideological influence on the educational process, the state educational authorities encouraged the use of any available means to achieve their political and propaganda-based ideological goals. Radio shows were produced for students during the 1930s and during the Second World War according to a similar model that made use of different content.</p> PAULINA ČOVIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 REGIONALISM AS AN ALTERNATIVE DIRECTION IN BELARUSIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH: BETWEEN RECONSTRUCTION OF THE PAST AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE FUTURE <p>The relevance of the study of regionalism in historical research is due to the active processes of territorial and transnational regionalization. In the modern world, regionalism appears in two forms: at the subnational level (territories within the structure of a state) and at the supranational level (interstate associations). In both cases, the main subject and reference point in the construction of a region is the nation-state. Thanks to historical research, regional projects undergo reification and begin to position themselves as objectively existing and self-sufficient spaces. Unfortunately, the reverse process associated with criticism and rethinking by historians of certain regional projects in modern historiography has not been observed. Deprived of access to the sea, small landlocked states are, more than others, forced to take part in regional associations, which suggests their historical grounding. The problem is that regional projects (concepts) are developed by philosophers, writers, and diplomats of hegemonic countries. Modern national historiographies of small European countries are forced to adapt their national historical narratives to regional projects imposed from outside. For the Republic of Belarus, a young landlocked European state, this means a difficult choice between five regional projects developed by European or Russian philosophers and writers that are associated with the concepts of Eastern Europe, the Western Rus', Eurasia, Central–Eastern Europe, and the Eastern European borderland.</p> SIARHEI DANSKIKH ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 “TRADITIONLESS SUPERSTITION”: HISTORICAL NOVELTY AND THE EARLY CHRISTIAN APOLOGETICS <p>To be disinterested in any historically approved tradition while also promoting oneself as a new, exclusive religion in terms of soteriology was something quite unacceptable to the mindset of antiquity. Nevertheless, this is exactly how Christianity was perceived in the Imperium Romanum as a historical novelty, an anti-traditional, ethnically unrooted, overbearing, and in fact superstitious religious movement which, to say the least, was a disturbing and subversive social phenomenon. Given the seriousness of these perceptions and accusations made by both pagans and Jews, early Christian apologetics focused on several key topics that lie in the background of this issue. First of all, apologetics focused on relativizing an alleged contradiction between the historically new and the truth. Moreover, they worked on a reinterpretation of the term new in the context of the Christian relationship to the Old Testament tradition and especially to its prophecies. Also, early Christian theology made it clear that novelty actually represented the timeliness of the divine revelation, as implied by the term καιρός in relation to the incarnation of the Logos. Moreover, this should not be understood in terms of the protological, but rather in terms of an eschatological perspective. Interpreted in this way, Christianity manifests itself as simultaneously old and new, as a phenomenon that inevitably bases its existence on an appreciation of History, within which the successive divine epiphanies took place and tradition (old and new) formed in connection with these epiphanies.</p> ZDRAVKO JOVANOVIĆ ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Charles Ingrao1, The Habsburg Monarchy: 1618– 1815 (Third Edition), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, 310 pp. <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Pavle Petković ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Steven Beller2, The Habsburg Monarchy 1815– 1918, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2018, 315 pp. <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Pavle Petković ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Goran Vasin and Nenad Ninković, A History of the Karlovci Metropolitanate, Novi Sad: Prometej, 2022, 342 pp. (Goran Vasin i Nenad Ninković, Istorija Karlovačke mitropolije, Novi Sad: Prometej, 2022, 342 str. (Serbian Cyrillic)) <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Pavle Petković ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Slobodan Bjelica, Disputes over the autonomy of Vojvodina: book 2. 1974–1988, Beograd: Službeni glasnik, 2021, 568 pp. (Slobodan Bjelica, Sporovi oko autonomije Vojvodine: knjiga 2. 1974–1988, Beograd: Službeni glasnik, 2021, 568 str. (Serbian Cyrillic)) <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aljoša Rebrača ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 19 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000