In this article the conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary on the First World War’s eve is scrutinized within the context of the “Age of Empires”. The main ideological tool of the Austria Hungary’s colonial enterprize in the Balkan was its “civilizing mission” in the “semi-oriental”, “barbarian” Balkan lands. The leading intelectuals of Serbia, mainly educated in the West, which were gathering around the “Serbian Literary Herald” magazine, were perfectly aware of these circumstances. Their articles in the “Herald” and other magazines and journals demonstrated different strategies of resistance to the colonial pressure of the neighbouring Empire. One of those strategies was the avoidance of cultural colonization through the westernization of Serbian culture, but according to French and British, and not the German or Austro-Hungarian patterns.